Most other examinees voluntarily purchased a health checkup in the middle

Most other examinees voluntarily purchased a health checkup in the middle

Most other examinees voluntarily purchased a health checkup in the middle

Analysis Populace

Brand new Kangbuk Samsung Fitness Research are a great cohort study of Korean folk, aged ?18 decades, whom underwent a thorough yearly otherwise biennial fitness examination during the Kangbuk Samsung Healthcare Total Medical care Centers in the Seoul and you will Suwon, Southern Korea. twelve Really examinees (>80%) is actually teams of various companies and you will regional political organizations as well as their partners. In the South Korea, the new Industrial Safe practices Laws demands annual or biennial wellness screening inspections of all group, free.

Our very own data was restricted to Kangbuk Samsung Fitness Study members who undergone a comprehensive health test from , and given advised consent to have linkage towards the Medical insurance Remark and you may Testing Solution database (n=263 532; Figure step 1). Inside Korea, health care was organized less than a mandatory single?payer across the country insurance system (National Health insurance) you to definitely gathers all of the information about scientific characteristics fool around with covering the whole Korean population not as much as an extensive database manage from the Medical insurance Comment and you will Review Services. 13

We excluded participants with missing data on BP or history of hypertension (n=1018), with history of malignancy (n=6255), with history of CVD (n=3440), or with a diagnosis of CVD (n=10 471) at baseline. Because some participants met >1 exclusion criterion, the final sample size included in the analysis was 244 837 participants (mean [SD] age, 39.0 [8.9] years; interquartile range, 32.2–43.7 years; and young adults aged <40 years of 60.7 %).

Written informed concur was taken from all of the people. The study is authorized by the Institutional Opinion Board off Kangbuk Samsung Health.


Data on demographic characteristics, lifestyle factors, medical history, and family history of CVD were collected by standardized, self?administered questionnaires. 14 Smoking status was categorized as never, former, and current smoker. Alcohol intake was categorized as <20 and ?20 g/d, as applied in previous studies. 12 , 15 Education level was categorized as less than college and college education or more. Physical activity was assessed using the validated Korean version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire short form. 16 Participants were classified as inactive, minimally active, and health?enhancing physically active. Health?enhancing physically active was defined as physical activity that meets either of 2 criteria: (1) vigorous?intensity activity on ?3 days per week, accumulating ?1500 metabolic equivalent min/wk; or (2) 7 days of any combination of walking, moderate?intensity activities, or vigorous?intensity activities achieving at least 3000 metabolic equivalent min/wk. 16 Usual dietary intake was assessed using a 103?item, self?administered food frequency questionnaire designed and validated for use in Korea. 17 Daily intake of sodium was calculated by multiplying the frequency of consumption of each food by the portion size and sodium content of each food and summing across all relevant food items. 18 , 19

Height and weight were measured by trained nurses. Body mass index was calculated as weight (in kilograms) divided by height (in meters squared). BP was measured using an automated oscillometric device (53000; Welch Allyn, New York, NY) by trained nurses while participants were in a sitting position, with the arm supported at the heart level after a 5?minute rest. We recoded 3 consecutive BP readings and used the average of the second and third readings in the analysis. BP levels were categorized according to the 2017 ACC/AHA hypertension guideline. 11 Participants without a history of hypertension were categorized as normal BP (< mm Hg), elevated BP (120–129/<80 mm Hg), stage 1 hypertension (130––89 mm Hg), and stage 2 hypertension (? mm Hg). Participants with a history of hypertension were categorized as treated and strictly controlled hypertension (< mm Hg on antihypertensive medication use), treated and controlled hypertension (130––89 mm Hg on antihypertensive medication use), treated but uncontrolled hypertension (? mm Hg on antihypertensive medication use), and untreated hypertension (not using antihypertensive medications).

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